Livestock Area Sources
Methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia from digestive gases and waste are produced from these agricultural area sources:
- Beef Livestock Operations
- Dairy Farm Operations
- Sheep Grazing Operations
- Hog/Pig Feeding Operations
- Poultry Barns
Various research organizations have used our technology to conduct measurements of CH4, CO2, and NH3 emissions from agricultural operations. Many operators store in large amounts of manure in open lagoons to be applied to land as fertilizer at some later date. The handling, storage and land applications of manure results in the release of ammonia and odorous compounds to the atmospheres. Public concern over the effect of these emissions has risen steadily in recent years. Our technology has been successfully used in numerous studies to quantify the GHG emissions coming from agricultural operations.
Stationary Point Sources
A stationary point source is a single, identifiable source of air pollutant emissions. Our technology can be used to measure the CO2 emissions from the combustion source’s stack or can measure the facilities fence line. Sources can be:
- Steam Generators
- Combustion Furnace
- Gas Turbines
Waste Disposal Landfills
Landfill gas is created when organic waste in landfills decomposes. Landfill gas consists mostly of CH4 (55%) and CO2 (45%). H2S and NH3 are also present. CH4 is explosive (lower limit of 4.5% in air) as well as being a GHG. So it is important to monitor methane emissions from landfills for both safety and environmental reasons. Boreal’s technology has been used on many landfill studies worldwide.
In a typical study, CH4 concentrations are taken using multiple path measurements across the entire landfill. Measurements upwind of the landfill are made to locate any other influencing methane sources and to measure the local ambient methane levels. An overall ‘picture’ of surface emissions is mapped. Hotspots (areas with high concentration gradients) are located. If necessary, the flux (overall emissions) from the hotspots can then be measured. The use of dispersion models can be used to calculate emission rates from concentration data measured with our analyzer.
Biogas Collection from Landfills or Animal Waste
Municipal solid waste or animal waste can be a source of energy. Anaerobic bacteria that live in landfills or lagoons decompose organic waste to produce biogas. Biogas contains methane which is also found in natural gas.
Biogas can be dangerous to people and the environment because methane is a flammable and predominant greenhouse gas. Some landfills control the methane gas emissions simply by burning or flaring methane gas; others collect biogas, treat it, and then sell or convert it to electricity. Boreal provides best-in-class open-path monitoring solutions that are perfect for biogas collection.
Mobile sources include the exhaust emissions from vehicles driven by fuel-burning engines. Our portable and fixed location open-path measurement analyzers were purpose built for monitoring emissions from mobile sources. Our technology can be used to ensure that your facility, dock, station, port or airport is identifying out-of-compliance emitters. Sources can be:
- Marine Vessels
Evaporative sources are volatile liquids that, when not completely enclosed in a tank or other vessels, evaporate and release vapors over time. The most common of these evaporative sources are liquid hydrocarbons. Our analyzers can monitor a tank farm to monitor the fugitive emissions being released from the open-vessels.
Oil Sands Mining and Tailings Ponds
The oil sands mining operations and tailings ponds located in Alberta, Canada are coming under increased attention for the production certain GHG’s. The microbial communities in the tailings ponds play a key role in the production of CH4 and CO2 emissions. Our open-path TDL technology can continuously and instantaneously provide live CH4 and CO2 concentrations up-to 750m. Boreal provides a unique technical solution to mining operations and tailings ponds that are more accurate and repetitive than the current labour intensive snapshot techniques.
Active/Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells
Whether wells are in-operation or shut-in there is a strong possibility that there will be fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions. If every well only has a minor leak the cumulative effect over hundreds of thousands of wells will be significant. Our technology can be utilized with metrological stations and dispersion algorithms to accurately and reliably quantity the fugitive emissions. This information can be of assistance to the operational personnel to help reduce their operational fugitive emissions.
In-Situ Processing Facilities
Whether your facility is utilizing Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) or Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) for bitumen extraction the need to monitor for greenhouse gases is only going to increase. There is no better company to assist you than Boreal. Our products are developed and manufactured in Alberta and are ready for the rigors of Canadian summers and winters. Our technology offers significant advantages as it continuously and instantaneously provide accurate and reliable measurement concentrations.
Carbon Capture and Storage
While a well selected geological formation should not suffer from the effects of leakage it is a best practice to actively monitor the area for any potential seepage. Our open-path gas detection technology is tailor made for this application and has proven to be a valuable tool for CCS facility personnel. Our technology can be paired with a programmable scanner to allow a single analyzer to measure multiple paths. With the use of the scanner, meteorological station, and the use of dispersion models the analyzer can be used to calculate emission rates from concentration data measured.
Open-Pit Coal Mine
Coal mining releases methane in the atmosphere and the rate of the release is dependent on a number of factors that include coalification degree (coal rank), gas diffusion rate, permeability of coal, and the mining method. Due to the large area source of a open-pit it is a challenge for most existing gas detection methodologies but Boreal has the optimal solution with our open-path gas detection analyzer.
Flooding for Hydro-Electric Dams
When a proposed site for a hydro-electric dam is planned to be flooded, it would be prudent to measure baseline CH4 and CO2 emissions being produced in the area before and after the existing organic material decomposes. Our technology possesses unique advantages over the existing labor intensive and snapshot monitoring methodologies. Our ability to have continuous and instantaneous data measurement over an open-path of 750m provides researchers with an invaluable analytical tool.
Controlled burning is a useful technique practiced in forestry management and in agriculture. These controlled burns result in the formation and release of carbon dioxide. Since our technology uses laser light to quantity gas concentration we are in most cases better able to collect CO2 concentrations over other technologies.
Rice agriculture is a big source of atmospheric methane, possibly one of the largest cumulative man-made methane sources. The waterlogged soil of rice paddies provides ideal conditions for methanogenesis, and the large majority of methane is released into the atmosphere. Boreal’s open-path gas detection technology is ideally suited for the collection of the released methane emissions from rice paddy fields.